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Monday, March 31, 2008

Personal computer

We already familiar how to use computer,but do we know the part of computer?A typical personal computer consists of a case or chassis in a tower shape (desktop) and the following parts:


The "heart" of the computer, through which all other components interface.

  • Central processing unit (CPU) - Performs most of the calculations which enable a computer to function, sometimes referred to as the "brain" of the computer.
    • Computer fan - Used to lower the temperature of the computer; a fan is almost always attached to the CPU, and the computer case will generally have several fans to maintain a constant airflow. Liquid cooling can also be used to cool a computer, though it focuses more on individual parts rather than the overall temperature inside the chassis.
  • Random Access Memory (RAM) - Fast-access memory that is cleared when the computer is powered-down. RAM attaches directly to the motherboard, and is used to store programs that are currently running.
  • Firmware is loaded from the Read only memory ROM run from the Basic Input-Output System (BIOS) or in newer systems Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) compliant
  • Internal Buses - Connections to various internal components.
  • External Bus Controllers - used to connect to external peripherals, such as printers and input devices. These ports may also be based upon expansion cards, attached to the internal buses.
    • USB
    • firewire
    • SCSI (On Servers and older machines)
    • PS/2 (For mice and keyboards, being phased out and replaced by USB.)

Power supply

A case that holds a transformer, voltage control, and (usually) a cooling fan, and supplies power to run the rest of the computer, the most common types of power supplies are AT and BabyAT (old) but the standard for PC's actually are ATX and micro ATX

Storage controllers

Controllers for hard disk, CD-ROM and other drives like internal Zip and Jaz conventionally for a PC are IDE/ATA; the controllers sit directly on the motherboard (on-board) or on expansion cards, such as a Disk array controller. IDE is usually integrated, unlike SCSI which is found in most servers. The floppy drive interface is a legacy MFM interface which is now slowly disappearing. All these interfaces are gradually being phased out to be replaced by SATA and SAS.

Video display controller

Produces the output for the visual display unit. This will either be built into the motherboard or attached in its own separate slot (PCI, PCI-E, PCI-E 2.0, or AGP), in the form of a Graphics Card.

Removable media devices

  • CD - the most common type of removable media, inexpensive but has a short life-span.
    • CD-ROM Drive - a device used for reading data from a CD.
    • CD Writer - a device used for both reading and writing data to and from a CD.
  • DVD - a popular type of removable media that is the same dimensions as a CD but stores up to 6 times as much information. It is the most common way of transferring digital video.
    • DVD-ROM Drive - a device used for reading data from a DVD.
    • DVD Writer - a device used for both reading and writing data to and from a DVD.
    • DVD-RAM Drive - a device used for rapid writing and reading of data from a special type of DVD.
  • Blu-ray - a high-density optical disc format for the storage of digital information, including high-definition video.
    • BD-ROM Drive - a device used for reading data from a Blu-ray disc.
    • BD Writer - a device used for both reading and writing data to and from a Blu-ray disc.
  • HD DVD - a high-density optical disc format and successor to the standard DVD. It was a discontinued competitor to the Blu-ray format.
  • Floppy disk - an outdated storage device consisting of a thin disk of a flexible magnetic storage medium.
  • Zip drive - an outdated medium-capacity removable disk storage system, first introduced by Iomega in 1994.
  • USB flash drive - a flash memory data storage device integrated with a USB interface, typically small, lightweight, removable and rewritable.
  • Tape drive - a device that reads and writes data on a magnetic tape, usually used for long term storage.

Internal storage

Hardware that keeps data inside the computer for later use and remains persistent even when the computer has no power.

  • Hard disk - for medium-term storage of data.
  • Solid-state drive - a device emulating a hard disk, but containing no moving parts.
  • Disk array controller - a device to manage several hard disks, to achieve performance or reliability improvement.

Sound card

Enables the computer to output sound to audio devices, as well as accept input from a microphone. Most modern computers have sound cards built-in to the motherboard, though it is common for a user to install a separate sound card as an upgrade.


Connects the computer to the Internet and/or other computers.

IT - Computer networking

Figure beside shows the important hardware for computer networking.It is aNetwork cards that can transmit and receive data at high rates over various types of network cables.

Computer networking is the engineering discipline concerned with communication between computer systems or devices. Networking, routers, routing protocols, and networking over the public Internet have their, specifications defined in documents called RFCs. Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of telecommunications, computer science, and/or information technology, computer engineering. Computer networks rely heavily upon the theoretical and practical application of these scientific and engineering disciplines.

A computer network is any set of computers or devices connected to each other with the ability to exchange data.Examples of networks are:

  • local area network (LAN), which is usually a small network constrained to a small geographic area.
  • wide area network (WAN) that is usually a larger network that covers a large geographic area.
  • wireless LANs and WANs (WLAN & WWAN) is the wireless equivalent of the LAN and WAN

All networks are interconnected to allow communication with a variety of different kinds of media, including twistes pair copper wire cable, coaxial cable, optical fibre, and various wireless technologies.The devices can be separated by a few meters (e.g. via Bluetooth) or nearly unlimited distances (e.g. via the interconnections of the Internet)

Semasa kem di Ulu Kenas,gambar ini telah diambil bersama dengan fasilitator kumpulan.Banner yang dikibarkan menandakan tanda semangat berpasukan seluruh ahli kumpulan ini.Semasa kem ini juga,pelajar dibawah PPK BAHAN dapat mengenali kawan-kawan satu batch dari kediaman Wang Ulu yang terdiri dari pelajar jurusan ijazah.Walaupun kediaman pelajar diploma dan kediaman Wang ulu amat jauh,namun pelajar PPK BAHAN dapat mengenali dengan lebih rapat lagi dengan pelaksanaan kem ini....


Gambarajah di sebelah ialah kotak kawalan mesin yang menggunakan teknologi CNC iaitu Computer Numerical Control di penggunaannnya dapat mengurangkan tenaga manusia.Ukuran yang dikehendaki terhadap penghasilan barang juga akan lebih tepat dan jitu.Penggunaan alat ini ialah hasil dari perkembangan dan pengaplikasian ICT dalam teknologi yang semakin pesat membangun sekarang ini....terima kasih kepada penciptanya....

Monday, March 24, 2008

metalurgi dan kisahnya..

nama metalurgi adalah gabungan daripada perkataan 'metal' dan 'uji' yg secara terperincinya bermaksud kajian dan ujian terhadap bahan besi...pelajar metalurgi dari unimap adalah pelajar yg bakal mendpat pangkat Ir....pengajian dalam kos metalurgi di unimap amat memberi galakan kepada semua pelajar kerana kemudahan bas kuning dan shuttle yang sentiasa berjalan lancar...pelajar metalurgi terdiri daripada 20 putera raja yang terpilih dan 13 bidadari yang tak tahu datang dari mana...semua putera dan bidadari ini telah memilih metalurgi atas sukarela dan mungkin juga paksarela....tetapi yang paling penting,apa yang dapat dilihat selepas kem di ulu kenas dibawah rancangan PPK BAHAN, pelajar metalurgi nampaknya lebih bersatu padu dan rapat antara satu sama lain....